Journal of Applied Physics: Most Cited articles
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Most cited articles from Journal of Applied Physicsen-usSun, 15 May 2022 11:17:46 GMTAtypon® Literatum™http://validator.w3.org/feed/docs/rss2.html10080Journal of Applied Physics: Most Cited articleshttps://aip.scitation.org/na101/home/literatum/publisher/aip/journals/covergifs/jap/cover.jpg
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Polymorphic transitions in single crystals: A new molecular dynamics method
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.328693?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.328693?feed=most-citedA new Lagrangian formulation is introduced. It can be used to make molecular dynamics (MD) calculations on systems under the most general, externally applied, conditions of stress. In this formulation the MD cell shape and size can change according to dynamical equations given by this Lagrangian. This new MD technique is well suited to the study of structural transformations in solids under external stress and at finite temperature. As an example of the use of this technique we show how a single crystal of Ni behaves under uniform uniaxial compressive and tensile loads. This work confirms some of the resultsM. Parrinello and A. RahmanFri, 14 Aug 1998 07:00:00 GMTDetailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p‐n Junction Solar Cells
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1736034?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1736034?feed=most-citedIn order to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p‐n junction solar energy converters, a limiting efficiency, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for an ideal case in which the only recombination mechanism of hole‐electron pairs is radiative as required by the principle of detailed balance. The efficiency is also calculated for the case in which radiative recombination is only a fixed fraction fc of the total recombination, the rest being nonradiative. Efficiencies at the matched loads have been calculated with band gap and fc as parameters, the sun and cell being assumedWilliam Shockley and Hans J. QueisserFri, 11 Jun 2004 07:00:00 GMTA comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1992666?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1992666?feed=most-citedThe semiconductor ZnO has gained substantial interest in the research community in part because of its large exciton binding energy which could lead to lasing action based on exciton recombination even above room temperature. Even though research focusing on ZnO goes back many decades, the renewed interest is fueled by availability of high-quality substrates and reports of -type conduction and ferromagnetic behavior when doped with transitions metals, both of which remain controversial. It is this renewed interest in ZnO which forms the basis of this review. As mentioned already, ZnO is not new to the semiconductor field, with studies ofÜ. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. MorkoçTue, 30 Aug 2005 07:00:00 GMTGeneral Theory of Three‐Dimensional Consolidation
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1712886?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1712886?feed=most-citedThe settlement of soils under load is caused by a phenomenon called consolidation, whose mechanism is known to be in many cases identical with the process of squeezing water out of an elastic porous medium. The mathematical physical consequences of this viewpoint are established in the present paper. The number of physical constants necessary to determine the properties of the soil is derived along with the general equations for the prediction of settlements and stresses in three‐dimensional problems. Simple applications are treated as examples. The operational calculus is shown to be a powerful method of solution of consolidation problems.Maurice A. BiotTue, 13 Apr 2004 07:00:00 GMTContact and Rubbing of Flat Surfaces
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1721448?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1721448?feed=most-citedThe interpretation of certain phenomena occuring at nominally flat surfaces in stationary or sliding contact is dependent on the assumed distribution of the real area of contact between the surfaces. Since there is little direct evidence on which to base an estimate of this distribution, the approach used is to set up a simple model and compare the deduced theory (e.g., the deduced dependence of the experimental observables on the load) with the experimental evidence. The main conclusions are as follows. (a) The electrical contact resistance depends on the model used to represent the surfaces; the most realistic model isJ. F. ArchardMon, 07 Jun 2004 07:00:00 GMTOn differential equations of nonlocal elasticity and solutions of screw dislocation and surface waves
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.332803?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.332803?feed=most-citedIntegropartial differential equations of the linear theory of nonlocal elasticity are reduced to singular partial differential equations for a special class of physically admissible kernels. Solutions are obtained for the screw dislocation and surface waves. Experimental observations and atomic lattice dynamics appear to support the theoretical results very nicely.A. Cemal EringenThu, 04 Jun 1998 07:00:00 GMTBand parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1368156?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1368156?feed=most-citedWe present a comprehensive, up-to-date compilation of band parameters for the technologically important III–V zinc blende and wurtzite compound semiconductors: GaAs, GaSb, GaP, GaN, AlAs, AlSb, AlP, AlN, InAs, InSb, InP, and InN, along with their ternary and quaternary alloys. Based on a review of the existing literature, complete and consistent parameter sets are given for all materials. Emphasizing the quantities required for band structure calculations, we tabulate the direct and indirect energy gaps, spin-orbit, and crystal-field splittings, alloy bowing parameters, effective masses for electrons, heavy, light, and split-off holes, Luttinger parameters, interband momentum matrix elements, and deformation potentials, includingI. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and L. R. Ram-MohanThu, 07 Jun 2001 07:00:00 GMTA Powder Technique for the Evaluation of Nonlinear Optical Materials
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1656857?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1656857?feed=most-citedAn experimental technique using powders is described which permits the rapid classification of materials according to (a) magnitude of nonlinear optical coefficients relative to a crystalline quartz standard and (b) existence or absence of phase matching direction(s) for second‐harmonic generation. Results are presented for a large number of inorganic and organic substances including single‐crystal data on phase‐matched second‐harmonic generation in HIO3, KNbO3, PbTiO3, LiClO4·3H2O, and CO(NH2)2. Iodic acid (HIO3) has a nonlinear coefficient d14∼1.5×d31 LiNbO3. Since it is readily grown from water solution and does not exhibit optical damage effects, this material should be useful for nonlinear device applications.S. K. Kurtz and T. T. PerryWed, 19 Nov 2003 08:00:00 GMTDyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2891452?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2891452?feed=most-citedAn exact solution is obtained for the electromagnetic field due to an electric current in the presence of a surface conductivity model of graphene. The graphene is represented by an infinitesimally thin, local, and isotropic two-sided conductivity surface. The field is obtained in terms of dyadic Green’s functions represented as Sommerfeld integrals. The solution of plane wave reflection and transmission is presented, and surface wave propagation along graphene is studied via the poles of the Sommerfeld integrals. For isolated graphene characterized by complex surface conductivity , a proper transverse-electric surface wave exists if and only if (associated with interband conductivity),George W. HansonTue, 18 Mar 2008 07:00:00 GMTEffect of valence electron concentration on stability of fcc or bcc phase in high entropy alloys
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3587228?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.3587228?feed=most-citedPhase stability is an important topic for high entropy alloys (HEAs), but the understanding to it is very limited. The capability to predict phase stability from fundamental properties of constituent elements would benefit the alloy design greatly. The relationship between phase stability and physicochemical/thermodynamic properties of alloying components in HEAs was studied systematically. The mixing enthalpy is found to be the key factor controlling the formation of solid solutions or compounds. The stability of fcc and bcc solid solutions is well delineated by the valance electron concentration (VEC). The revealing of the effect of the VEC on the phase stabilitySheng Guo, Chun Ng, Jian Lu, and C. T. LiuMon, 16 May 2011 07:00:00 GMTThe work function of the elements and its periodicity
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.323539?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.323539?feed=most-citedA new compilation, based on a literature search for the period 1969–1976, is made of experimental data on the work function. For these 44 elements, preferred values are selected on the basis of valid experimental conditions. Older values, which are widely accepted, are given for 19 other elements on which there is no recent literature, and are so identified. In the data for the 63 elements, trends that occur simultaneously in both the columns and the rows of the periodic table are shown to be useful in predicting correct values and also for identifying questionable data. Several illustrative examples areHerbert B. MichaelsonTue, 26 Aug 2008 07:00:00 GMTThermoelasticity and Irreversible Thermodynamics
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1722351?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1722351?feed=most-citedA unified treatment is presented of thermoelasticity by application and further developments of the methods of irreversible thermodynamics. The concept of generalized free energy introduced in a previous publication plays the role of a ``thermoelastic potential'' and is used along with a new definition of the dissipation function in terms of the time derivative of an entropy displacement. The general laws of thermoelasticity are formulated in a variational form along with a minimum entropy production principle. This leads to equations of the Lagrangian type, and the concept of thermal force is introduced by means of a virtual work definition. HeatM. A. BiotFri, 14 May 2004 07:00:00 GMTFirst-principles calculations for defects and impurities: Applications to III-nitrides
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1682673?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1682673?feed=most-citedFirst-principles calculations have evolved from mere aids in explaining and supporting experiments to powerful tools for predicting new materials and their properties. In the first part of this review we describe the state-of-the-art computational methodology for calculating the structure and energetics of point defects and impurities in semiconductors. We will pay particular attention to computational aspects which are unique to defects or impurities, such as how to deal with charge states and how to describe and interpret transition levels. In the second part of the review we will illustrate these capabilities with examples for defects and impurities in nitride semiconductors.Chris G. Van de Walle and Jörg NeugebauerWed, 31 Mar 2004 08:00:00 GMTMechanics of Deformation and Acoustic Propagation in Porous Media
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1728759?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1728759?feed=most-citedA unified treatment of the mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media is presented, and some new results and generalizations are derived. The writer's earlier theory of deformation of porous media derived from general principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is applied. The fluid‐solid medium is treated as a complex physical‐chemical system with resultant relaxation and viscoelastic properties of a very general nature. Specific relaxation models are discussed, and the general applicability of a correspondence principle is further emphasized. The theory of acoustic propagation is extended to include anisotropic media, solid dissipation, and other relaxation effects. Some typical examples ofM. A. BiotFri, 11 Jun 2004 07:00:00 GMTMultiferroic magnetoelectric composites: Historical perspective, status, and future directions
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2836410?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2836410?feed=most-citedMultiferroic magnetoelectric materials, which simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have recently stimulated a sharply increasing number of research activities for their scientific interest and significant technological promise in the novel multifunctional devices. Natural multiferroic single-phase compounds are rare, and their magnetoelectric responses are either relatively weak or occurs at temperatures too low for practical applications. In contrast, multiferroic composites, which incorporate both ferroelectric and ferri-/ferromagnetic phases, typically yield giant magnetoelectric coupling response above room temperature, which makes them ready for technological applications. This review of mostly recent activities begins with a brief summary of the historical perspective of the multiferroicCe-Wen Nan, M. I. Bichurin, Shuxiang Dong, D. Viehland, and G. SrinivasanTue, 05 Feb 2008 08:00:00 GMTFlash Method of Determining Thermal Diffusivity, Heat Capacity, and Thermal Conductivity
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1728417?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1728417?feed=most-citedA flash method of measuring the thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity is described for the first time. A high‐intensity short‐duration light pulse is absorbed in the front surface of a thermally insulated specimen a few millimeters thick coated with camphor black, and the resulting temperature history of the rear surface is measured by a thermocouple and recorded with an oscilloscope and camera. The thermal diffusivity is determined by the shape of the temperature versus time curve at the rear surface, the heat capacity by the maximum temperature indicated by the thermocouple, and the thermal conductivity by the productW. J. Parker, R. J. Jenkins, C. P. Butler, and G. L. AbbottFri, 11 Jun 2004 07:00:00 GMTA Theory of Large Elastic Deformation
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1712836?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1712836?feed=most-citedIt is postulated that (A) the material is isotropic, (B) the volume change and hysteresis are negligible, and (C) the shear is proportional to the traction in simple shear in a plane previously deformed, if at all, only by uniform dilatation or contraction. It is deduced that the general strain‐energy function, W, has the form W=G4 ∑ i=13(λi−1λi)2+H4 ∑ t=13(λi2−1λi2), where the λi's are the principal stretches (1+principal extension), G is the modulus of rigidity, and H is a new elastic constant not found in previous theories. The differences between the principal stresses are σi[minus]σi=λi∂ W/∂λi[minus]λi∂ W/∂λi. Calculated forces agreeM. MooneyTue, 13 Apr 2004 07:00:00 GMTEffect of Strain Rate Upon Plastic Flow of Steel
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1707363?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1707363?feed=most-citedAn experiment has been designed to check a previously proposed equivalence of the effects of changes in strain rate and in temperature upon the stress‐strain relation in metals. It is found that this equivalence is valid for the typical steels investigated. The behavior of these steels at very high rates of deformation may, therefore, be obtained by tests at moderate rates of deformation performed at low temperatures. The results of such tests are described. Aside from changing the isothermal stress‐strain relation, an increase of strain rate tends to change the conditions from isothermal to adiabatic. It is found that atC. Zener and J. H. HollomonThu, 15 Apr 2004 07:00:00 GMTGeneralized Formula for the Electric Tunnel Effect between Similar Electrodes Separated by a Thin Insulating Film
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1702682?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1702682?feed=most-citedA formula is derived for the electric tunnel effect through a potential barrier of arbitrary shape existing in a thin insulating film. The formula is applied to a rectangular barrier with and without image forces. In the image force problem, the true image potential is considered and compared to the approximate parabolic solution derived by Holm and Kirschstein. The anomalies associated with Holm's expression for the intermediate voltage characteristic are resolved. The effect of the dielectric constant of the insulating film is discussed in detail, and it is shown that this constant affects the temperature dependence of the J‐V characteristicJohn G. SimmonsWed, 09 Jun 2004 07:00:00 GMTNearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1409582?feed=most-cited
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.1409582?feed=most-citedWe demonstrate very high efficiency electrophosphorescence in organic light-emitting devices employing a phosphorescent molecule doped into a wide energy gap host. Using bis(2-phenylpyridine)iridium(III) acetylacetonate doped into 3-phenyl-4(1′-naphthyl)-5-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole, a maximum external quantum efficiency of (19.0±1.0)% and luminous power efficiency of (60±5) lm/W are achieved. The calculated internal quantum efficiency of (87±7)% is supported by the observed absence of thermally activated nonradiative loss in the photoluminescent efficiency of Thus, very high external quantum efficiencies are due to the nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency of coupled with balanced hole and electron injection, and triplet exciton confinement within the light-emitting layer.Chihaya Adachi, Marc A. Baldo, Mark E. Thompson, and Stephen R. ForrestWed, 31 Oct 2001 08:00:00 GMT