No Access Submitted: 05 April 1963 Published Online: 09 June 2004
Journal of Applied Physics 34, 2602 (1963); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1729777
more...View Affiliations
  • Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated, Murray Hill, New Jersey
View Contributors
  • W. W. Rigrod
The nonlinear gain characteristics of optical maser amplifiers at high beam intensities, and the optimum cavity coupling of maser oscillators for maximum output power, are computed for maser media with homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. An approximate expression is derived for the power output of a gas maser oscillating simultaneously at many longitudinal cavity resonances, based on the assumption that the gain saturates independently at each frequency. In each case, the decrease of maser gain with radiation intensity involves an empiric constant, or saturation parameter, which is characteristic of the active medium.
Power and gain measurements at 1.15 μ on three He–Ne maser tubes of different diameter, in a cavity 1.75 m long, are found to satisfy the derived multifrequency power expression, and permit evaluation of the gain—saturation parameter for this gas mixture. The power expression, derived for a single transverse mode, is unexpectedly found to hold for multimode oscillations as well, within the range of measurements. From the measured saturation parameter and the derived expressions, the performance of amplifiers and other oscillators with the same active medium can be predicted.
  1. 1. J. S. Wright and E. O. Schulz du Bois, Solid‐State Maser Research, Report No. 5, Contract No. DA‐36‐039‐sc‐85357, 20 September 1961 (ASTIA No. Ad 265838). Google Scholar
  2. 2. J. P. Gordon (private communication). Google Scholar
  3. 3. W. R. Bennett, Jr., Phys. Rev. 126, 580 (1962). Google ScholarCrossref
  4. 4. W. R. Bennett, Jr., Appl. Opt. Suppl. 1, 24 (1962). Google ScholarCrossref
  5. 5. A. D. White, E. I. Gordon, and J. D. Rigden, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 91 (1963). Google ScholarScitation
  6. 6. Equations (21) and (22) were independently derived by R. Kompfner and, in somewhat different notation, by A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE 51, 4 (1963). Google ScholarCrossref, ISI
  7. 7. W. W. Rigrod, H. Kogelnik, D. J. Brangaccio, and D. R. Herriott, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 743 (1962). Google ScholarScitation, ISI
  8. 8. A. L. Bloom, W. E. Bell, and R. E. Rempel, Appl. Opt. 2, 317 (1963). Google ScholarCrossref, ISI
  9. 9. G. D. Boyd and J. P. Gordon, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 489 (1961). Google ScholarCrossref
  10. 10. W. W. Rigrod, Appl. Phys. Letters 2, 51 (1963). Google ScholarScitation
  11. 11. Corrected by a factor of 0.605 to compensate for an error in thermopile calibration. Google Scholar
  1. © 1963 The American Institute of Physics.